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Wonders of World Aviation

Part 4

Part 4 of Wonders of World Aviation was published on Tuesday 29th March 1938, price 7d.

This part included a central photogravure supplement showing various types of airship which illustrates the article Types of Airship.

The Cover

There are no editorial notes about this cover, which shows a propeller and engine of an unidentified aeroplane.

Wonders of World Aviation part 3

Contents of Part 4

The Caterpillar Club (Part 2)

Work of the Test Pilot

Types of Airship

Types of Airship (photogravure supplement)

Captain Ball, VC

The First British Pilot

Conquest of the North Atlantic (Part 1)

The Fairey Battle on Test

THE FAIREY BATTLE ON TEST. The test pilot, after exhaustive trials on the ground, takes the aircraft into the air and performs various manoeuvres before reporting on its characteristics and behaviour. The Fairey Battle is a low-wing cantilever monoplane day bomber with a span of 54 feet and a length of 52 ft 2 in. Its speed at 15,000 feet is 257 miles an hour. The engine is a Roll-Royce Merlin.

(Page 96)

A similar view in colour of the Fairey Battle appears on the cover of Part 6.

Work of the Test Pilot

Proving new types of aircraft and new models of existing types. The most important part of the test pilot’s job is the testing of prototypes, or first machines of new types of aircraft. He has not only to assure himself that the aeroplane is right in every particular, but he has to be completely satisfied in his own judgment. In other word, he must know that the new type is not defective in any way. C S Staniland, himself a test pilot, describes the work of those important members of the aviation fraternity.

(Pages 96-101)

Captain Ball, VC

A young pilot whose skill, courage and resource made him a national hero. This brief chapter, by Clarence Winchester, is on the late Captain Albert Ball, VC, with whom the Editor became associated at Hendon aerodrome in 1915. The author is indebted to Sir Albert Ball, of Nottingham, his father, for certain of the information in this contribution. This is the first article in the series Epics of Service Flying.

(Pages 114-115)

Types of Airship

Photogravure Supplement

RIDING AT HER MOORING MAST at Cardington, Bedfordshire, the British rigid airship R 101. This airship marked several departures from previous practice. Her five engines were Beardmore Tornado heavy-oil engines working on the compression-ignition system. They provided heavier than had been estimated and an additional gas compartment was incorporated to increase the lift, giving a total capacity of 5,500,000 cubic feet and a final length of 777 feet. The R 101 was wrecked in France on October 5, 1930.

(Page 105)

Types of Airship: Photogravure Supplement

GRAF ZEPPELIN at Frankfurt-am- Main, Germany. Launched in 1928, the Graf Zeppelin ha many remarkable performances to her credit, including a number of cruises to South America and a flight round the world. She is 772 feet long and has a maximum diameter of 100 feet, her capacity being about 3,710,000 cubic feet. The German type of transporter mast will be noted.

(Pages 106-107)

Types of Airship:

Photogravure Supplement

THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE of the R 101 consisted of fifteen main longitudinal members with as many intermediate longitudinals between them. The main transverse frames, of which there were also fifteen, were of deep triangular section. Steel tubing was extensively used.


(Page 108)

The First British Pilot

J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon, who holds No. 1 Pilot’s Certificate in Great Britain. The distinction of having been the first British aviator to make a controlled flight is held by Lieut.-Colonel J. T. G. Moore-Brabazon. It is true that A. V. Roe (now Sir Alliott Verdon-Roe) made a controlled flight of 75-150 feet in 1909. This distance, however, was not considered to be sufficiently long for a controlled flight, and the record was disallowed by the Royal Aero Club, which awarded the honour to Moore-Brabazon for a flight the same year.

Lieut.-Colonel J T C Moore-Brabazon

This chapter, by H G Castle, provides biographical infor-mation on Lieut.-Colonel Moore-Brabazon. It is the third article in the series on Makers of Air History.

(Page 116)

THE FIRST FLIGHT of a circular mile in Great Britain was made in the aeroplane shown in this photograph. The machine was built by Short Bros, and was similar to one used by the Wright brothers. Lieut.-Colonel Moore-Brabazon flew it to win a prize of £1,000 offered for the first aeroplane designed and built in Great Britain to fly a circular mile.

Instrument Board of the Fairey Battle

1. Automatic Pilot Controls; 2. Automatic Pilot Pressure Gauge; 3. Brake Pressure Gauge;

4. Air Speed Indicator; 5. Chassis Position Indicator; 6. Revolution Counter;

7. Boost Pressure Gauge; 8. Coolant Outlet Temperature; 9. Coolant Inlet Temperature;

10. Oil Pressure at Oil Cooler Outlet; 11. Main Oil Pressure; 12. Oil Inlet Temperature;

13. Oil Outlet Temperature; 14. Fuel Pressure Gauge; 15. Outside Air Temperature Gauge;

16. Flap Position Indicator; 17. Hydraulic Pressure Gauge; 18. Oil Temperature at Oil Cooler Outlet.

(Page 99)

The First North Atlantic Fliers

THE FIRST NORTH ATLANTIC FLIERS were Captain John Alcock (left) and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown (right). Both men had served with distinction during the war of 1914-18. Alcock had taken his pilot’s ticket in 1912, before he was twenty. Whitten Brown, born in 1886 at Glasgow, had been attracted to aerial navigation  since his youth. Both men, after their historic flight, were knighted by King George V.

(Page 120)

Conquest of the North Atlantic (Part 1)

The first non-stop flight from the New World to Europe, the historic achievement of the late Sir John Alcock and Sir Arthur Whitten Brown. This chapter recalls the superb feat of Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown. In June 1919 they flew a Vickers Vimy biplane form St John’s, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Ireland. Through fog and sleet, they flew 1,960 miles to make the first direct, non-stop flight across the North Atlantic. This chapter is by

H G Castle, and is concluded in part 5.

Writing in the Editorial to this part, Clarence Winchester wrote, “I always think of Alcock with some affection, for I knew him well; and it was he who gave me one of my earliest flights before the war of 1914-18 - on a Sunbeam engined Maurice Farman at Brooklands, Surrey. I suppose it is true of most of us that our earliest flights are memorable. Alcock was a quiet and thorough English character with none of the spectacular about him. To me, at least, it was no surprise that, with the co-operation of Whitten Brown, he succeeded in making the Atlantic flight, difficult as that task was known to be. To many he is only a legendary figure and to some his name is hardly known, but he was a great figure in the comparatively early days of British aviation.”

This is the third article in the series Great Flights.

 (Pages 117-120)

Leslie Irvin

LESLIE IRVIN, inventor of the Irvin Air Chute. He was the first aviator to make a descent with a “free type” manually operated parachute. The photograph shows him wearing the “Quick Release” harness and “Seat Pack” type of Irvin Air Chute. Although Leslie Irvin has made more than a hundred descents, he is not - so far - a Caterpillar, as these descents have all been premeditated.

(Page 95)

Types of Airship

Problems that have been solved in light-than-air design. The three types of airship, rigid, semi-rigid and non-rigid are the outcome of the solutions by airship pioneers of various early difficulties. One of the chief obstacles that had to be overcome was the problem of attaching a car to a streamlined gasbag, making the car a reasonable length yet adding as little as possible to weight and resistance. This chapter is by Captain J A Sinclair and includes a photogravure supplement.

(Pages 102-113)

You can read about The Mooring of Airships in part 11; on How Airships are Flown in part 18;and on British Airships in part 21. You can read more on airship design and equipment in Wonders of World Engineering.

The TC 13: The Largest Non-Rigid Airship in America

THE LARGEST NON-RIGID AIRSHIP IN AMERICA at the time of her building, in 1933, was the

TC 13. She has a capacity of 360,000 cubic feet, a length of 233 feet and a diameter of 54 feet. Her design incorporated several novel features, the car being flush with the envelope. A similar airship, the TC 14, was built in 1935.

(Page 109)

Captain Albert Ball, VC

AWARDED THE VICTORIA CROSS in June 1917, Albert Ball had learned to fly at Hendon shortly after the outbreak of the 1914-18 war. He had a remarkable career as a fighter and brought down forty-four enemy aircraft before he was killed in 1917.

(Page 114)

The Caterpillar Club (Part 2)

The story of the Caterpillar Club, a fraternity of about 1,700 men and a few women, of many nationalities, whose lives have been saved by the Irvin Air Chute. This chapter is by Sidney Howard and the article is concluded from part 3.

(Page 93-95)

The Fairey Battle on TestInstrument Board of the Fairey BattleThe TC13: The Largest Non-Rigid Airship in AmericaThe Rigid Airship R 33

The Rigid Airship R 33

VALUABLE RESEARCH WORK was carried out in the twenties by the rigid airship R 33, based on Pulham, Norfolk. A sister airship to the R 34, which made a historic double crossing of the Atlantic in 1919, the R 33 was 643 feet long, with a maximum diameter of 79 feet. Her capacity was 1,960,000 cubic feet and her maximum speed was about sixty-two miles an hour.

(Page 112)

RIDING AT HER MOORING MAST at Cardington, Bedfordshire, the British rigid airship R 101 GRAF ZEPPELIN at Frankfurt-am- Main, Germany GRAF ZEPPELIN at Frankfurt-am- Main, Germany THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE of the R 101 consisted of fifteen main longitudinal members Captain Albert Ball, VC The Departure From Newfoundland, June 14, 1919

The Departure From Newfoundland, June 14, 1919

THE DEPARTURE FROM NEWFOUNDLAND on June 14, 1919. The aeroplane in which Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown flew across the Atlantic was a Vickers Vimy biplane. The machine had been designed during the war of 1914-18 as a heavy bomber, but certain modifications were carried out before the first North Atlantic flight. Fuel tanks of extra size were added, to enable the machine to take 865 gallons of petrol and 50 gallons of oil. Fully loaded, the aeroplane weighed 13,300 lb, and it had a cruising speed of 90 miles an hour. The main planes had a span of about 68 feet.

(Page 117)

Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown